October 31, 2018

Nominals at the Interfaces

Happening from November 2 through 4 at Sogang University in Seoul, South Korea, is Nominals at the Interface: a conference devoted to noun phrases through the lens of various theoretical approaches across subfields, and organized at least in part by alumnus Michael Barrie (Ph.D. 2006, now at Sogang University). Two of our Ph.D. students are represented on the program:

Ilia Nicoll (Ph.D.) is presenting a talk:
"Evidential markers in Labrador Inuttitut: Licensing inflected nominal incorporation."

Virgilio Partida Peñalva (Ph.D.) is presenting a poster:
"The UNO strategy in Spanish NP-ellipsis revisited."

Two alumni are presenting as well:

Michael Barrie (Ph.D. 2006, now at Sogang University) and Heeryun Jung (Sogang University)
"Aspects of ki-nominalization in Korean."

Monica Irimia (Ph.D. 2011, now at the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia):
"Varieties of (low) structural objects, licensing and the structure of nominals."

October 30, 2018

Invited talk for Computer Science: Demetres Kostas (University of Toronto)

The Department of Computer Science is hosting a talk by their Ph.D. student Demetres Kostas: "Learning the brain rhythms of speech." This will be taking place on Tuesday, October 30, at 1:30 PM in PT 266.

I present work that uses deep neural networks trained with raw MEG data to predict the age of children performing a verb-generation task, a monosyllable speech-elicitation task, and a multi-syllabic speech-elicitation task. I argue that the network makes these predictions on the grounds of differences in speech development. Previous work has explored using neural networks to classify encephalographic recordings with some success, but they do little to acknowledge the structure of these data, typically relying on some popular contemporary architecture designed for a vaguely related application. Previous such approaches also typically require extensive feature engineering to succeed. I will show that configuring a neural network to mimic the common manual pipeline employed for brain-computer interface classifiers allows them to be trained with raw magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) recordings and achieve state-of-the-art accuracies with no hand-engineered features.

October 29, 2018

Website for 50th anniversary now live!

The site for our 50th anniversary festivities is now live. Thanks to webmaster/graphic-designer Radu Craioveanu (Ph.D.) and the rest of the committee for all of their hard work. Check out the program and watch for more vintage photos!

October 28, 2018

Public lecture: Angela D. Friederici (Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences)

University College is delighted to be hosting Professor Angela D. Friederici, the Director of the Department of Neuropsychology at the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences in Leipzig. She earned her Ph.D. from the University of Bonn in 1976 and over the course of her distinguished career has contributed to than four hundred and fifty journal articles, spanning neurolinguistics, psycholinguistics, language and memory, language acquisition, dyslexia, and more.

On Thursday, November 1 at 4:30 PM in UC 140, she will be giving this year's N. Graham Lecture in Science: "Language in our brain." Faculty, staff, students, and the public are welcome. Registration is not necessary, but seating is available only on a first-come-first-serve basis. Please note that University College building does not currently have a barrier-free entrance, but will be by early 2019.

October 27, 2018

Lex on TVO's Word Bomb

Ph.D. student Lex Konnelly is featured in the sixth episode of TVO's Word Bomb - "the podcast that explodes today's most-talked-about words and brings you stories the dictionary doesn't tell you." Starting at 3:08, Lex discusses both their own experiences and their ongoing research into the singular they pronoun in English and its sociopolitical surroundings: the increasing recognition and acceptance in the Western world that not all human beings fit into a binary gender classification. "When you're referring to somebody else, that's one of the most political things that you can do...pronouns are a very important part of that."

October 26, 2018

Public lecture: Philippe Schlenker (New York University/École normale superieure)

The Jackman Humanities Institute welcomes Philippe Schlenker as a Distinguished Visiting Fellow next week. He is a Global Distinguished Professor at New York University and Director of Research at the Institute Jean-Nicod, Department of Cognitive Studies, École Normale Superieure. He holds two Ph.D.s: one in linguistics from MIT (1999) and one in philosophy from l'École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (2002). His research interests encompass semantics and pragmatics, philosophy of language, morphosyntax, sign languages, and animal communication. On Tuesday, October 30 from 4 to 6 PM in room 100 of the Jackman Humanities Building, Professor Schlenker will be giving a public lecture: "Meaning in sign, in speech, and in gesture." ASL interpretation will be provided. There is no charge for attendance, and registration is not required.

Contemporary linguistics has established 3 results: 1. Sign languages, used by Deaf communities throughout the word, are full-fledged languages that share typological properties among themselves and also with spoken languages. 2. Sign languages have the same 'logical spine' as spoken languages, but sometimes they make the logical structure of sentences far more explicit than is the case in spoken language. A salient case concerns logical variables, which are covert in spoken language but are realized overtly in sign language by way of positions in signing space. 3. But in addition, sign languages have rich iconic possibilities, including at their logical core. For instance, logical variables can simultaneously function as simplified iconic representations of their denotations. By contrast, iconic possibilities exist but are limited in the spoken modality.

Should we conclude (from 2 and 3) that sign languages are more expressive than spoken languages, since they have the same logical spine but richer iconic possibilities? For the comparison to be complete, one must re-integrate into spoken language semantics the study of co-speech gestures, which have rich iconic capabilities. But we will argue that even when sign language is compared to speech-plus-gestures, sign languages have an entire class of expressive possibilities that spoken languages mostly lack.

October 25, 2018

New dictionary co-edited by Richard Compton

Congratulations to Richard Compton (Ph.D. 2012, now at l'Université du Québec à Montréal) and co-editor Emily Kudlak on the release of their Kangiryuarmiut Inuinnaqtun: Uqauhiitaa Numiktitirutait Dictionary, newly available from Nunavut Arctic College.

This is the most comprehensive dictionary of any Western Canadian dialect of the Inuit language. It contains over 5,000 Inuinnaqtun entries and subentries with their translations, over 3,000 example sentences, and a large inventory of suffixes.

October 24, 2018

Lex in Lee Airton's new book

Ph.D. student Lex Konnelly, who works on morphosyntax and sociolinguistics (and who is teaching Language and Gender at UTM this semester), was recently interviewed for a new book by faculty member Lee Airton of Queen's University. Airton's book, Gender: Your Guide (Adams Media/Simon and Schuster) outlines approaches to supporting human beings across a range of gender identities given the untenable nature of historical European attempts at equating gender with sex assigned at birth. Lex was interviewed about the singular they pronoun in present-day English.

October 23, 2018

Research Groups: Friday, October 26

Note that there is no Psycholinguistics Group meeting this week.

11:30 AM - 1:00 PM
Syntax Group
Two practise talks for the upcoming Nominals at the Interfaces conference in South Korea: Virgilio Partida Peñalva (Ph.D.) and Ilia Nicoll (Ph.D.).

1:00 PM - 2:30 PM
Fieldwork Group
Group paper discussion: Soh, Hooi Ling, and Jenny Yi-Chun Kuo (2005). Perfective aspect and accomplishment situations in Mandarin Chinese. In Verkuyl, Henk J., de Swart, Henriette, and van Hout, Angeliek (eds.), Perspectives on aspect, 199-216. Dordrecht: Springer.

October 22, 2018

50th anniversary celebration

Our department is turning fifty years old this year! In recognition of this anniversary, we will be holding a Linguistics at 50 Celebration Event on Friday, November 2 and Saturday, November 3. Events will include retrospectives, performances from house band F-Zero, a Three-Minute Thesis competition, and a banquet. Aside from current departmental members and staff, we welcome alumni, former faculty members, former staff, and old friends of the department. We hope to see you join us for the festivities!

To register to attend, please visit the event page. Please note that the deadline is Wednesday, October 24 (the day after tomorrow).

On social media, the relevant hashtag is #TOling50. Questions and concerns can be directed at torontoling50@gmail.com.

October 21, 2018

Report from NWAV47

New Ways of Analyzing Variation is meeting in New York City this weekend; our department members and alumni are very well-represented! This photo has most if not quite all of them (thanks to Pocholo Umbal for providing the photo).

Back row: Derek Denis (faculty), Marisa Brook (faculty), Pocholo Umbal (Ph.D.), Aaron Dinkin (former faculty, now at San Diego State University), Miriam Neuhausen (visiting scholar), Tim Gadanidis (Ph.D). Middle row: Ailís Cournane (Ph.D. 2015, now at New York University), Lex Konnelly (Ph.D.), Emily Blamire (Ph.D.), Ruth Maddeaux (Ph.D.), Naomi Nagy (faculty), Katharina Pabst (Ph.D.), Lauren Bigelow (MA). Front row: Sali A. Tagliamonte (faculty), Alexandra D'Arcy (Ph.D. 2005, now at the University of Victoria), Angelika Kiss (Ph.D.), Lisa Schlegl (Ph.D.), and Shayna Gardiner (Ph.D. 2017, now at Receptiviti).

October 19, 2018

Derek in The Medium

Derek Denis (faculty) was recently interviewed for the student publication The Medium on the Mississauga campus: "Seeing Scrabble through a linguistic lens."

October 18, 2018

Guest speaker: Olga Fernández-Soriano (Universidad autónoma de Madrid)

The Department of Spanish and Portuguese is pleased to welcome faculty member Olga Fernández-Soriano from the Universidad autónoma de Madrid: "Non-matching split interrogatives and focus extension in Spanish." It will be taking place on Monday, October 22, from 3 to 5 PM in VC 102.

October 17, 2018

New paper: Brook, Jankowski, Konnelly, and Tagliamonte (2018)

Marisa Brook (faculty), Bridget L. Jankowski (staff; Ph.D. 2013), Lex Konnelly (Ph.D.), and Sali A. Tagliamonte (faculty) have a paper out in the Journal of Sociolinguistics, 22(4): "'I don't come off as timid anymore': Real‐time change in early adulthood against the backdrop of the community."

The period from ages 18 to 25 is sometimes called ‘emerging adulthood’ (Arnett 2000, 2004) since it has come to be characterized by major life transitions. Linguistically, this means that lifespan change in the individual (Sankoff 2004, 2018) might be particularly likely during these years (Labov 2001: 447; Bigham 2012: 533; Kohn 2014: 20). Addressing a need for more real‐time sociolinguistic research on early adulthood, we employ data from a panel study of a single speaker, ‘Clara’ (b. 1986), interviewed every 12 to 18 months between the ages of 16 and 30 (Tagliamonte 2005, 2012: 274–276). We examine four linguistic variables that differ according to level of the grammar and social salience in Clara's community (Toronto, Canada). For each variable, Clara's rates of the variants shift to match those of subsequent age cohorts in the community around her as she gets older and joins the workforce. These findings attest to emerging adulthood as a sociolinguistically formative period. More generally, they emphasize the inseparability of individuals and their linguistic surroundings.

October 14, 2018

Research Groups: Week of October 15-19

Wednesday, October 17, 12:00 PM - 2:00 PM, Bissell Building 113
Morphology Reading Group
Ross Godfrey (Ph.D.) will be leading a paper discussion: Trommer, Jochen. A postsyntactic morphome cookbook. In Siddiqi, Daniel, and Harley, Heidi (eds.), Morphological metatheory, 59-94. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Friday, October 19, 10:00 AM - 11:30 AM
Phonology Research Group

Friday, October 19, 11:30 AM - 1:00 PM
Semantics Research Group
Group discussion of two background readings for the upcoming master-class on presuppositions at the Jackman Humanities Institute to be led by Philippe Schlenker (École normale supérieure/New York University) on November 2. The first of these is: Schlenker, P. (2011). Presupposition projection: Two theories of local contexts, Part I. Language and Linguistics Compass, 5(12), 848-857. The second one is: Schlenker, P. (to appear). Iconic presuppositions.

October 13, 2018


New Ways of Analyzing Variation 47 is being held at New York University from October 18 to 21. Our present roster of sociolinguists/acquisitionists and alumni are all over the program. In addition, Ph.D. student Pocholo Umbal was selected as one of the winners of the NWAV 47 Student Travel Award. Congratulations!

Timothy Gadanidis (Ph.D.), Angelika Kiss (Ph.D.), Lex Konnelly (Ph.D.), Katharina Pabst (Ph.D.), Lisa Schlegl (Ph.D.), Pocholo Umbal (Ph.D.), and Sali A. Tagliamonte (faculty) are giving a talk with Nicole Hildebrand-Edgar (York University):
"Stance, style, and semantics: Operationalizing insights from semantic-pragmatics to account
for linguistic variation."

Ailís Cournane (Ph.D. 2015, now at New York University) and Ana-Teresa Pérez-Leroux (faculty):
"Internal bias feeds incrementation: Experimental evidence from must in child Toronto English."

Alexandra D'Arcy (Ph.D. 2005) and Sali A. Tagliamonte (faculty):
"What’s age got to do with it? Problematizing the temporal dimension for linguistic explanation."

Marisa Brook (faculty):
"As if and as though in earlier spoken Canadian English: Register and the onset of change."

Erin Hall (Ph.D.) and Ruth Maddeaux (Ph.D.):
"/u/-fronting and /æ/-raising in Toronto families."

Timothy Gadanidis (Ph.D.):
"What's the 'uh' for?: Pragmatic specialization of uh and um in instant messaging."

Naomi Nagy (faculty), with colleagues Rosalba Nodari (Schuola Normale Superiore) and Chiara Celata (Schuola Normale Superiore):
"Internal versus contact-induced variability: Phonetic but not phonological fidelity in Heritage Italian VOT."

Pocholo Umbal (Ph.D.), with Irina Presnyakova (Simon Fraser University) and Panayiotis Pappas (Simon Fraser University):
"Allophones of /æ/ in four ethnic groups of Vancouver, B.C."

Naomi Nagy (faculty) is part of a talk with colleagues Miriam Meyerhoff (Victoria University of Wellington), Richard Arnold (Victoria University of Wellington), Danielle Barth (Australian National University), Michael Dunn (Uppsala University), Simon Greenhill (Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History), Steffen Klaere (Wilfred Laurier University) Nancy Niedzielski (Rice University), James Walker (La Trobe University), Russell Gray (Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History), and Evan Hazenberg (University of Sussex):
"New approaches to scaling up: Tracking variation from individual to group and to language."

Alexandra D'Arcy (Ph.D. 2005, now at the University of Victoria):
"Linguists be like, 'Where did it come from?'"

Sali A. Tagliamonte (faculty) is part of a workshop with Michol Hoffman (York University), James Stanford (Dartmouth College), Christina Tortora (City University of New York), and
James Walker (La Trobe University):
"Methodological and pedagogical issues for undergraduate researchers in large corpus projects."

Ailís Cournane (Ph.D. 2015, now at New York University) is conducting a workshop with Vishal Arvindam (New York University):
"Eye-tracking for LVC research."

Marisa Brook (faculty) and Emily Blamire (Ph.D.) are presenting a poster:
"The analysis of awesomeØ: Rule-governed nonstandardness at the edge of the grammar."

Matt Hunt Gardner (Ph.D. 2017, now at St. Mary's University) is also presenting a poster:
"I’ll tell you, this study is going to explore future temporal reference in Cape Breton."

Former visiting scholar Holman Tse (University of Pittsburgh) is presenting a talk on his research conducted in accordance with the Heritage Language Variation and Change Project:
The vowels in 'pig' vs. 'tofu': A contact-induced merger in Toronto Heritage Cantonese?"

Heather Burnett (postdoc 2015, now at the Centre national de la recherche scientifique) is co-presenting a talk with Julie Auger (Indiana University):
"What about mie? Methodologies for investigating negation in Picard."

Current visiting scholar Jonathan Kasstan (Queen Mary University of London) is also presenting a talk:
"Maintaining style in language death."

October 12, 2018

Report from AMP6

A lively bunch of department members and alumni assembled at the Annual Meeting on Phonology at the University of California, San Diego from October 5 through 7. Thanks to faculty member Peter Jurgec for the photo!

Nicholas Rolle (MA 2010, now at the University of California, Berkeley), Sara Mackenzie (Ph.D. 2009, now at Memorial University of Newfoundland), Avery Ozburn (MA 2014, now at the University of British Columbia), Rachel Walker (MA 1993, now at the University of Southern California), Peter Jurgec (faculty), Sharon Rose (BA 1990, now at the University of California, San Diego), Aleksei Nazarov (faculty), and Manami Hirayama (Ph.D. 2009, now at Seikei University).

October 11, 2018

10th Annual LGCU Welcome Workshop

The tenth LGCU Welcome Workshop is being held on Friday, October 12, in SS 560A. This yearly event is a way of introducing new graduate students and their prior research to the LGCU and the department community.

Sadaf Rahmanian (MA):
"Does misspelling words matter?"

Lauren Bigelow (MA):
"[ej] and [ow] ungliding in Northern Ontario."

Liam Donohue (MA):
"Tense-aspect interaction in Georgian verbs."

Bruno Andreotti (Ph.D.)
"Aspectual, volitional and agentive properties of control marking in Comox-Sliammon."

Koorosh Ariyaee (Ph.D.)
"Phonological blocking factors of pre-nasal vowel raising in Tehrani Persian."

Lisa Sullivan (Ph.D.)
"Phonological conditioning of –ian /–iən/ and –an /–ən/ place name suffixes."

All department members are welcome. A reception will follow in the lounge.

October 10, 2018

Undergrad Welcome Tea and award winners

On Thursday, September 27, we held a Welcome Tea for undergraduates interested in linguistics. This was a chance for newcomers, intermediate/senior linguistics undergrads, grad students, and faculty in the department to get to know each other. At the event, we also announced this year's winners of four undergraduate awards:

Elaine Gold Award for Outstanding Achievement
Christina Suk-Yan Duong

Henry Rogers Award and Memorial Scholarship
Crystal Hai Ying Chen                                             

Jack Chambers Undergrad Scholarship in Linguistics
Anissa Elizabeth Baird                                                         

McNab Scholarship in Linguistics
Hannah Green

Congratulations to all four, and welcome to everyone!

October 9, 2018

Research Groups: Friday, October 12

Please note the extra meeting of the Language Variation and Change Research Group this week.

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM in SS 4043
Psycholinguistics Group
Megan Parker (MA 2018): "Open doors and closed laptops: Overspecifying state information in the production of referring expressions".

10:00 AM - 11:30 AM in Robarts 14190
Language Variation and Change Research Group
Practise talks for NWAV 47, part 2 of 2: Tim Gadanidis (Ph.D.); Marisa Brook (faculty) and Emily Blamire (Ph.D.); Tim Gadanidis (Ph.D.), Nicole Hildebrand-Edgar (York University), Angelika Kiss (Ph.D.), Lex Konnelly (Ph.D.), Katharina Pabst (Ph.D.), Lisa Schlegl (Ph.D.), Pocholo Umbal (Ph.D.), and Sali Tagliamonte (faculty).

11:30 AM - 1:00 PM
Syntax Group
Dan Milway (Ph.D.): "A proposal for a label-based theory of the syntax-semantics interface"
In recent work, Chomsky (2013; 2015) has argued that syntactic labelling/projection is performed at the syntax-semantics interface, and is required for proper interpretation by the Conceptual-Intentional system. In this talk I discuss the implications of this line of argumentation and propose an extension to Chomsky's Label Theory. According to this extension, the label of a complex constituent determines how it composes. I further argue that this proposal could be more theoretically attractive than our current semantic-type-based theory of composition (Heim and Kratzer 1998; Montague 1970).

1:00 PM - 2:30 PM
Fieldwork Group
Group paper discussion: Bar-el, Leora (2015). Documenting and classifying aspectual classes across languages. In Bochnak, M. Ryan, and Matthewson, Lisa (eds), Methodologies in semantic fieldwork, 75-109. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

October 4, 2018


The 6th Annual Meeting on Phonology (AMP 6) is being held from October 5-7 at the University of California, San Diego. We are being represented by faculty member Peter Jurgec and several recent undergraduate alumni.

Peter and George Steel (BA 2016) are presenting a demonstration:
"PhonoApps: Learning phonology online."

Peter, Rachel Evangeline Chiong (BA 2018), Andrea Macanović (BA 2018), and Peter Weiss (Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts)
"True transparency and limited blocking in Slovenian palatalization consonant harmony."

October 3, 2018

Happy administrative birthdays!

We are fortunate to have a pair of wonderful, hard-working, enthusiastic, well-organised administrators at the front of our department office: Jennifer McCallum (our Graduate Administrator) and Deem Waham (our Undergraduate Administrator). Among other ways in which these two work in sync and with enviable efficiency is that they share a birthday. This year, we had a little gathering to celebrate our vibrant front-desk staff for everything they do. Thanks to Emily Blamire (Ph.D.) for special efforts in arranging the festivities and to Emily Clare (Ph.D.) for taking the photo.

Happy birthday to both from all of us!

Julianne Doner (Ph.D.), Nick LaCara (faculty), Naomi Nagy (faculty), Marisa Brook (faculty), Jennifer and Deem and Deem's husband Tobias, Sali A. Tagliamonte (faculty), Kinza Mahoon (Ph.D.), and Emily Blamire (Ph.D.).

October 2, 2018

Research Groups: Week of October 1-5

Monday, October 2, 1:30 PM - 3:30 PM, PT266
Computational Linguistics Group, Department of Computer Science
Ella Rabinovich (postdoc, Department of Computer Science): "A computational approach to the study of bilingualism."
The goal of this talk is to propose and evaluate an approach for bridging the gap between two related areas of research on bilingualism: translation studies and second language acquisition. I investigate the characteristics of language production that is influenced by the existence of another linguistic system - language that is produced by a variety of multilinguals, including learners, advanced non-native speakers and translators. I ask whether these language varieties are subject to unified principles, governed by phenomena that stem from the co-existence of multiple linguistic systems in a bilingual brain. By applying a range of computational methodologies, I highlight factors that account for the commonalities and the distinctions between various crosslingual languages varieties. Major features of bilingualism, including grammatical, cognitive, and social aspects, have been extensively studied by scholars for over half a century. Crucially, much of this research has been conducted with small, carefully-curated datasets or in a laboratory experimental setup. I will show that the availability of large and diverse datasets of productions of non-native speakers stimulates new opportunities for pursuing the emerging direction of computational investigation of bilingualism, thereby tying empirical results with well-established theoretical foundations.

Wednesday, October 3, 12:00 PM - 2:00 PM, Bissell Building 113
Morphology Reading Group
Sahar Taghipour (Ph.D.) will be leading a paper discussion: Stump, Gregory (forthcoming). Paradigm Function Morphology: Assumptions and innovations. In Aronoff, Mark (ed.), The Oxford research encyclopedia of linguistics. Oxford University Press.

Friday, October 5, 10:00 AM - 11:30 AM
Language Variation and Change Research Group
Practise talks for NWAV 47, part 1 of 2: Naomi Nagy (faculty); Marisa Brook (faculty); Erin Hall (Ph.D.) and Ruth Maddeaux (Ph.D.).

Friday, October 5, 11:30 AM - 1:00 PM
Phonology Research Group

Friday, October 5, 1:00 PM - 2:30 PM
Semantics Research Group
Bruno Andreotti (Ph.D.): "Interpreting derived stative predicates: Evidence from ʔayʔajuθəm."
This presentation explores the semantic properties of a verb affix which marks stative aspect in ʔayʔajuθəm. Also known as Comox-Sliammon, ʔayʔajuθəm is a critically endangered Central Salish language spoken on the central west coast of British Columbia, Canada. The talk explores the different possible readings of this affix against what has been reported for similar morphemes in other languages. It is proposed that the different possible readings of a stativized predicate in ʔayʔajuθəm arise out of pragmatics, requiring no semantic or syntactic ambiguity, as has been proposed in previous analyses. In essence, the analysis states that derived stative predicates denote the contextually most informative and least superfluous of the states causally associated with the predicate, evaluated against a set of Questions Under Discussion. This analysis may also be applicable to adjectival participles in English.

October 1, 2018


The 49th meeting of the North East Linguistics Society is being held at Cornell University on October 5-7. On the program, we will be represented by five alumni across several theoretical subfields:

Daniel Currie Hall (Ph.D. 2007, now at St. Mary's University) and Avery Ozburn (MA 2014, now at UBC):
"When is derived [i] transparent? A subtractive approach to Uyghur vowel harmony."

Naomi Francis (MA 2014, now at MIT)
"Imperatives under even."

Michelle Yuan (MA 2013, now at the University of Chicago):
"Lexical case as an anaphor agreement effect: The view from Inuktitut."

Julie Legate (MA 1997, now at the University of Pennsylvania) and colleague Milena Šereikaitė (University of Pennsylvania) have a poster:
"Lithuanian evidentials and passives of evidentials."